By Marianela Jarroud, February 6 2013. Source: Inter Press Service
SANTIAGO, Feb 6 2013 (IPS) - “This is paradise and they want to destroy it. This has had an enormous psychological impact on us,” says Guido Melinao, leader of the Mapuche indigenous community of Valeriano Cayicul, referring to the Neltume hydroelectric power plant project planned by the Spanish-Italian consortium Endesa-Enel.
The plant, to be built with an investment of 781 million dollars, would have an installed capacity of 490 megawatts and generate an estimated average of 1,885 gigawatt-hours of electricity annually.
In addition to the hydropower plant, which will be run with the waters of the Fuy River and empty into Lake Neltume, Endesa-Enel’s plans also include the construction of a high-tension power line to distribute the electricity through Chile’s Central Interconnected System.
The project was submitted to the Environmental Impact Assessment System in February 2010, but was withdrawn after receiving more than 500 observations. It was resubmitted in December of the same year.
Nevertheless, there has still been no official final decision on the plant’s construction.
The town of Neltume is located in the municipality of Panguipulli, 860 kilometres south of Santiago. The area, known as Siete Lagos (Seven Lakes), is one of the most popular tourism destinations during high season in the Región de Los Ríos (Region of Rivers).
It is an area rich in natural heritage, with a wealth of forests, rivers, streams, lakes and lagoons.
The area has also served as “a refuge for communities who have managed to establish and maintain their own spaces despite the expansion of the forestry industry in the 20th century,” Juan Carlos Skewes, director of theDepartment of Anthropology at Alberto Hurtado University, told IPS.
“The way in which these communities populate their territory reflects ancient, archaeological patterns,” explained Skewes. These include “the placement of settlements in sites with a view of the sunrise, and the attempt to always maintain the connection between the volcano and the lake.”
Lake Neltume is surrounded by Andes mountain peaks and offers a view of the Choshuenco volcano.
The “rewe” or totem that is a fundamental part of the ceremonial complex of the Huilliche or Southern Mapuche indigenous people who inhabit the area is placed on one of the lake’s shores.
Jorge Weke, the “werkén” (spokesperson) of the Koz Koz Parliament of Panguipulli, told IPS that the company intends to “desecrate this complex, which would be a sacrilege”.
Skewes noted that this complex “is not visible to Chileans and is scarcely documented in the literature. We are talking about a practice that dates back at least 700 years from an archaeological perspective and has remained intact until today.”
At the bottom of the lake there is “a kind of underwater archaeological site that only the Mapuche are aware of,” composed of the bones of bulls, offered up as sacrifices in their ceremonies.
The hydropower plant project will raise the water level of the lake, and as a result, the lakeshore where the rewe is placed will be submerged underwater. The water temperature will also be altered, which will have repercussions for the area’s biodiversity, noted Skewes.
The bones deposited in the lake bed will be moved as well.
In the belief system of the Mapuche, a central role is played by the “ngen” or spirit masters of nature. Each element of nature – the forest, air, water, etc. – has its own specific master who must be respected. If the ngen are not properly respected, they will leave and take with them the element of nature that they govern, explained Skewes.
As a result, the torrential rains that fell during the last “nguillatún” (a religious ceremony), held in December, were viewed by the local Mapuche communities as a “terrible omen”.
“Not only because it rained heavily, but because the rain raised the water level in the lake to the level it would reach if the hydroelectric plant project goes through. This is why they ended up praying to the spirits standing in the water,” he added.
This has caused “tremendous stress” for the Mapuche, who view the behaviour of the weather “as a reflection of the behaviour of human beings”.
Local Mapuche communities have also protested over the dozens of species of medicinal plants that will be destroyed by the project, including orange ball trees (Buddleja globosa), canelo (Drimys winteri) and Chilean laurel (Laurelia sempervirens).
There are currently five communities, made up of hundreds of people, opposed to the power plant.
Only one group from the community of Juan Quintumán is in favour of it, although its leaders declined to share their reasons for supporting the project for this story. However, it is public knowledge that some community members have received money, construction materials for housing repairs, livestock and feed from the company.
These differing stances towards the project have led to rivalries between communities, which will persist for generations to come, believes Skewes. “This is creating internal divisions that run very deep,” he said.
In a press release dated Jan. 21, Endesa Chile stated that it “has been present in the community of Juan Quintumán and the towns of Neltume, Choshuenco and Puerto Fuy since 2007, maintaining close working ties that have resulted in the development of numerous projects in areas like culture, infrastructure, health and education.”
Skewes criticised the “public insanity” of the Chilean government, for attempting to promote a supposed dialogue on equal footing between a multinational consortium and an indigenous family living in the vicinity of Lake Neltume.
For now, the project’s opponents have refused to participate in the consultation established in the country’s new environmental law. In their view, it is being imposed as an alternative to the International Labour Organization’s Convention 169, which requires that indigenous and tribal peoples be consulted on projects that affect them.
Weke travelled to Italy to present his people’s opposition to the project to the Enel board of directors. Melinao, for his part, has visited the embassies of both Italy and Spain in Santiago, and declared that “we will die fighting for our land.”