Indian Government Burns Homes of Indigenous Meitei People in Loktak Lake, Manipur

GJEP has just received this urgent appeal from indigenous allies in Manipur State, Northeast India. The Government of Manipur has been blaming the indigenous peoples dwelling in Loktak lake for polluting and causing contamination of the Lake. Local people, however, blame pollution impacts on  the Loktak Multipurpose Hydroelectric Project, which has caused devastation of the wetlands ecosystem. Military operations in Loktak Lake are a common, and on several occasions have led to displacement and human rights violations of people living in and around the Lake. – The GJEP team

One of the burning huts

The Government of Manipur, a provincial government of the Government of India has unleashed a reign of state terror by burning down floating huts (Khangpokshang), built over Phumdis (floating vegetation mass) belonging to the fishermen living in Loktak Wetlands in Central Manipur from November 15, 2011 and is still continuing. The deliberate arsoning process was carried out by personnel of the Loktak Development Authority and the Manipur Police forces in accordance with a government notification issued by Loktak Development Authority on 11 November 2011. Nearly 200 floating huts have already been burnt so far till 17 November and the remaining 1,132 floating huts are to meet similar fate. There are about 5,000 family members living in all these floating huts in localities like Khuman Yangbi, Nambul Machin and Karang Sabal within the Loktak Lake.

The burning down of the floating huts is in accordance with the provisions of the much controversial Loktak Lake (Protection) Act, 2006, in particular Article 19 and 20 of the Act, which divides the 236.21 sq km Loktak Lake into two zones – a core zone comprising 70.30 sq km, which is a ‘no development zone’, or ‘totally protected zone’, and a buffer zone of other areas of the lake excluding the core zone. A vital aspect of this division is the ban on building huts or houses on phumdis inside the lake, planting athaphum, or engaging in athaphum-fishing in the core area, which will adversely affect over 10,000 people living in phumdi huts, as well as others dependent on Loktak Lake.

The arsoning of nearly 200 floating huts has led to displacement of nearly 950 community  members so far who has been living in these floating huts for generations. The number of affected community is still increasing as the arsoning spree is continuing. The affected family members including women, children and elderly are seeking refuge at Ningthoukhong Makha Leikai community hall in Bishenpur District, Manipur. The fishing gears and nets of the communities, the only survival means to catch fish from the Loktak wetlands were also burned and these has left the community in further dire situation and will impact on the communities to feely carry out daily chores of livelihood activities which they follow since time immemorial. Many of the children can no longer go to school. With the winter already setting in Manipur, the displaced villagers are facing much inconveniences.

Each household was offered 40,000 Indian Rupees (approx 900 USD) as compensation before burning down their huts. However, most of the villagers rejected this payment as the amount is too meager and cannot compensate their livelihood and survival means. And moreover, there is no process to rehabilitate the affected villagers and their right to free, prior and informed consent has not been sought. Rather, the arsoning of the huts is a forcible process with the Manipur police commandoes threatening and intimidating the affected villagers before burning their huts. And in many cases, the police also forced the displaced family members to burn their own huts.

The arsoning and destruction of floating huts and livelihood of the indigenous people dwelling in Loktak Lake constitute a serious violation of the “right to life”, “right to adequate housing” as guaranteed by the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and also the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Right. The failure to take the consent of the affected communities also constitute a serious forms of discrimination targetting the marginalized communities and also violated the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and the UN Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Racial Discrimination.

Affected peoples in several occasions had been raising vehement opposition to the introduction of the Act, which they fear would break the age-old bond between the lake and its people. Indigenous peoples depending on the Loktak Lake for survival continue to demand complete scrapping of the Loktak Protection Act, 2006.

Displaced women from Loktak Lake

 DEMANDS:  Urge upon the Government of India to:

  • Call for immediate suspension of burning of the remaining floating huts at Loktak lake
  • Allow and support the affected villagers to rebuild their floating huts in the phumdis for all those whose houses are being burnt and destroyed.
  • Adequate resettlement for affected fishermen near the lake with their free prior and informed consent so as to enable them to catch fishes and depend on the Loktak wetlands for their survival.
  • Adequate compensation for the loss of properties of affected villagers, such as fishing gears and equipments.
  • Revoke the Manipur Loktak Lake Protection Act, 2006 as this act has been formulated without the participation and consent of the affected communities and this act has failed to address the root cause of the persisting and increasing problems of Loktak Lake caused by the Ithai Barrage of the Loktak Multipurpose Hydroelectric Project.
  • Review Loktak Multipurpose Project and consider decommissioning of the Ithai Barrage in accordance with the recommendations of the World Commission on Dams
  • Recognize indigenous peoples’ community rights over their land and resources and their right to define their development priorities using their land and resources.
  • Implement indigenous peoples Right to Free Prior and Informed Consent before introducing any mega development policies and projects in Manipur in accordance with the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples
  • Stop all forms of displacement of indigenous peoples in the name of protection of wetlands and thereby should not lead to extinguishment of their survival and livelihood.
  • State should stop militarization of indigenous peoples land and using the military and law enforcing agencies in the pretext of promoting development projects in their territories without their consent


1. The Prime Minister of India,

South Block, Raisina Hill,
New Delhi,
India-110 101.
Telephone: 91-11-23012312.
Fax: 91-11-23019545 / 91-11-23016857.

2. Dr. P. Chidambaram

Home Minister
Griha Mantralaya
Room No. 104, North Block
Central Secretariat, New Delhi 110001
Fax: +91 11 2301 5750, 2309 3750, 2309 2763

3. Chairperson
National Human Rights Commission of India
Faridkot House, Copernicus Marg
New Delhi-110001 INDIA
Fax: +91 11 23340016

4. Mr. Y Joykumar Singh
Director General of Police
PHQ Imphal Manipur
795001 Imphal, Manipur INDIA
Fax + 91 385 2223829

5. Mr. Okram Ibobi Singh
Chief Minister of Manipur
New Secretariat Building
Bapupara, Imphal, Manipur
INDIA, Fax + 91 385 2451398

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Filed under Actions / Protest, Indigenous Peoples, Land Grabs

0 Responses to Indian Government Burns Homes of Indigenous Meitei People in Loktak Lake, Manipur

  1. Jennifer

    Excellent article,

    Thank you so much , this is very interesting article.

    The World Bank estimates that forcible “development-induced displacement and resettlement” now affects 10 million people per year. According to the World Bank an estimated 33 million people have been displaced by development projects such as dams, urban development and irrigation canals in India alone.

    India is well ahead in this respect. A country with as many as over 3600 large dams within its belt can never be the exceptional case regarding displacement. The number of development induced displacement is higher than the conflict induced displacement in India. According to Bogumil Terminski an estimated more than 10 million people have been displaced by development each year.

    Athough the exact number of development-induced displaced people (DIDPs) is difficult to know, estimates are that in the last decade 90–100 million people have been displaced by urban, irrigation and power projects alone, with the number of people displaced by urban development becoming greater than those displaced by large infrastructure projects (such as dams). DIDPs outnumber refugees, with the added problem that their plight is often more concealed.

    This is what experts have termed “development-induced displacement.” According to Michael Cernea, a World Bank analyst, the causes of development-induced displacement include water supply (dams, reservoirs, irrigation); urban infrastructure; transportation (roads, highways, canals); energy (mining, power plants, oil exploration and extraction, pipelines); agricultural expansion; parks and forest reserves; and population redistribution schemes.

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  3. Pingback: Indian Government Burns Homes of Indigenous Meitei People in Loktak Lake, Manipur | Set You Free News

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